Please note that even though this article is not endorsed by the BEBA Consortium, its contents may include some material that is under copyright of the Consortium.
ARP! That is what we talk about here. ARP is a basic component of most IPv4 networks, where it is used by the machines that want to retrieve the MAC address of a recipient possessing a given IP address. Of course, it is often implemented in Software-Defined Networks (SDN)… where it comes with a number of disadvantages. And of course we can improve it with the mechanisms designed as part of the BEBA research project!
This article is a follow-up of the description of BEBA, then the description of OpenState, and even to the example applications of this abstraction layer. ARP handling is yet another possible use case for OpenState. Let’s see how it can improve your network!
ARP has been used for years in IPv4 networks in order to make the association between an IP and a MAC address: when a host wants to send a packet to a given IP (L3) address, but does not know what the corresponding MAC (L2) address is, it broadcasts an ARP request to query all the hosts it can reach. When the host with the targeted IP address receives the request, it replies with a unicast message to provide its MAC address. With this knowledge, the initiator of the query can then send IP packets to their next hop.
ARP handling in datacenter
ARP works very well on the whole1, but depending on the context, it may be preferable not to deploy it. In a software-defined network, the broadcast queries can make it mandatory for the controller to be able both to handle broadcast and to prevent loops in the network, for example by implementing STP. Worse, in overlay networks with L2 over IP, the size of the L2 network is no more limited by geographical constraints: three virtual machines, for example, can be in three different locations in the world. The “LAN” is no more “local”, and yet ARP remains necessary to ensure L2 communication. But broadcasting requests in such conditions gets more expensive in resources, and the resolution time increases a lot.
So “classic” ARP can add an unnecessary layer of complexity (or even latency), that can be prevented if ARP requests can be answered by an intermediary agent instead of systematically being broadcast all over the network. In such a setup, an ARP responder is responsible for generating the replies to the unicast queries from the hosts.
In SDN networks, this traditionally translates into intermediary switches acting as responders and having to refer to the controller—which is the one to know the association between L2 and L3 addresses—whenever they receive an ARP query.
A use case for BEBA
But with OpenState, there is yet a simpler solution. Indeed the switch may already be aware of the MAC address of a given host, if it keeps state memory, and has already seen a recent packet with both MAC and IP addresses from this host (i.e. any IP packet). In this case, the switch directly answers to the requesting host: there is no broadcast, or no query to send to the controller.
It sounds nice! But, well, I lied: that was an overly simplified version. Actually the controller remains involved a little in ARP resolution even with BEBA scheme, and the BEBA switch does not obtain the IP and MAC address from the IP packet. Instead, what really happens is:
- The controller is still the one entity that knows about IP ↔ MAC association. But it does not respond to queries from the hosts itself.
- Instead, when it learns about a new association (when one switch sends up a notification about a network change for example), it installs a Packet Template Entry (PTE) as well as Flow Table Entries (FTEs) into the switches, both relying on OpenState.
- When receiving an ARP query from neighbor hosts:
- Either the switch does not have the associated PTE and FTEs, and it asks for them to the controller.
- Or they already received the correct information and can use it to answer to the querier.
How do those PTEs and FTEs work? A Packet Template Entry is, obviously, a template. And as such it is used in order to generate flows. These templates are of the following shape. Considering that the PTE is used to associate IP address 10.1.1.1 to MAC address aa:bb:cc:dd:ee:ff, the template “says”, roughly:
Create an ARP reply to MAC XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX and IP XX.XX.XX.XX stating that IP 10.1.1.1 is at MAC address aa:bb:cc:dd:ee:dd.
It is triggered by a FTE, which matches flows and instructs the following:
For any new ARP request received from host with IP address XX.XX.XX.XX and concerning IP 10.1.1.1, create an ARP answer with the correct PTE (above) and sends it back to the querying host.
Technically, this involves copying the values from the (MAC and IP) address fields to fill in the template. A more formal representation of a PTE would look like this:
|ID||Template||Copy operations to perform|
|1337||Ether (aa:bb:cc:dd:ee:ff, X1)
ARP (reply, aa:bb:cc:dd:ee:ff, 10.1.1.1, X2, Y2)
|Copy MAC source address in X1
Copy MAC source address in X2
Copy ARP IP source address in Y2
And this PTE would be triggered by the following FTEs:
|Ether (*, broadcast)
ARP (request, *, *, 10.1.1.1)
|Ether (*, aa:bb:cc:dd:ee:ff)||OUTPUT(port_n)|
So if we take it in chronological order: the controller installs the PTEs and FTEs into the switches. When an ARP request reaches a BEBA switch, the latter searches its flow tables for an associated FTE. When a pattern match (i.e. if the packet is an ARP request, for a known IP address), the relevant FTE calls its corresponding PTE to generate the ARP reply, by completing the template with the IP and MAC addresses of the querier (addresses of the ARP target are part of the template, contained in the PTE). Then this ARP reply is sent back to the host.
In this way, the controller is not involved in each ARP request that is sent, as it would if it was to assume the role of a simple ARP resolver as on the second diagram. This makes ARP deployment much more scalable, and limits the amount of ARP paquets transiting through the network. A nice use case for BEBA’s OpenState!
- As for all other use cases for designs developed for BEBA, the project’s list of public deliverables is the reference. For this use case, see in particular deliverable D5.2.
- The mechanisms to generate packet “in-switch” and to handle FTEs and PTEs are actually part of the InSPired switch design, also part of BEBA project: Improving SDN with InSPired Switches, Roberto Bifulco, Julien Boite, Mathieu Bouet and Fabian Schneider, 2016.